10 Dark Aspects of Trans-National Corporations

The 21st century version of colonialism.

Readership: All
Theme: Political Shenanigans
Length: 3,000 words
Reading Time: 10 minutes

Introduction

We often hear or read about the shenanigans of law officials and politicians, but we seldom hear any news about the power plays that are pulled by banks and corporations which are an order of magnitude more consequential.

The last post, The Power Play Tactics of Trans-National Corporations (2022-7-20), conveyed an excerpt from a Pakistani conference paper published in 2014 [1] that described “10 Bright Aspects of TNCs” which effectively served to seduce developing countries.  This post relays another excerpt from the same paper that reveals how trans-national corporations exert a hegemonic influence that is detrimental to the developing country and its citizens.

The overall message contained in these two posts is how international corporations colonize emerging economies through economic entrepreneurship and political alliances, not done by force of arms, but through the lure of $$$ and “modernization”.

The Nam Theun 1 hydropower dam under construction in the Bolikhamxay province of Laos.  The US$1.3 billion project is a joint venture of Phonesack Group (PSG) with a 60% stake, EGCO with 25%, and Electricite Du Laos (EDL) with 15%.
Image Source: Bangkok Post: Laos dam leaks normal, says Thai partner (2022-7-18) Photo: EGCO

I’ve taken the liberty to enhance the English and add relevant images and links to improve the overall delivery and readability.

[Begin Excerpt.]

Dark Aspects of Trans-National Corporations

Being a Trans-National Corporation (TNC) usually inculcates big size, advanced knowledge, abundance of resources, economies of scale, cutting edge technology, high bargaining power, and most importantly, plentiful financing to back up every venture. These resources provide them the latent advantage to play the game of their choice, on the grounds of their choice, and by the rules of their own choice. TNCs silently or boldly use the tactics of a power play to meet their usually hidden and rarely declared objectives. The literature on TNCs provides a grave critique of them as power players, but provides a naïve understanding of how they do it.

Since TNCs are the primary agent of interdependence occurring in the international economic system, their increasing importance puts serious limits on the state’s control of the domestic economy. Factors such as internalization, intra-firm trading, and transfer-pricing hide the actual international transactions and thus, decrease the ability of the national government to control its economy. By lacking this supervision over market activities, the government’s interests get into serious conflict with Multi-National Corporations’ (MNC) goals: The government needs the information about the market transactions in order to achieve its economic policy objectives, while the MNCs seek to internalize their transactions as much as possible in order to save extra costs, especially those designed for tax contributions. This pattern emerges from the fact that MNCs and nation-states have different goals when assessing and controlling market dynamics. There is no reason to claim that MNCs and nation-states always have conflicting objectives, however, there is no reason to assume that they will be identical or even substantially overlapping.

This study attempts to bring forward a few of their power tactics, therefore, revealing the dark side of TNCs, as briefly discussed below.

1. Stagnating Living Standards of Laborers

The philosophy of maintaining a competitive advantage is one of the strongly existing ideas behind the decision to go international. The interplaying factors behind such decisions include the availability of raw material, labor costs, infrastructure, political support, logistics, and location strategies. TNCs intentionally select specific combinations of these factors that yield lower costs, cheaper acquisitions, greater production, easier maintenance, and speedier distribution bases for their products.  One significant factor is that TNCs reportedly pay the laborers deployed at the production bases in the host country in accordance to the local wage rates, which are far lower than those prevailing in the TNC’s home country. These local wage standards (in the host country) are developed by their government in accordance to the local economic conditions, and only ensure the minimum levels of economic benefits of an activity which are necessary for one’s basic survival in that economy. Adherence to the local wage standards does not provide laborers any chance of improving their living standards. This results in the stagnation of the living standards of the laborers in the host country while the transnational capitalists accumulate the marginal difference between the wage rates in the home and host countries. In addition, the labor conditions are poor and labor unions are often absent.  Laborers are reported to work overtime in addition to their normal working hours in order to earn some extra money, which they usually end up by spending on their traumatic miseries or ceremonial needs. Therefore, in spite of the appearance of having great opportunities, laborers continue to grapple with poverty and hasten towards their natural deaths. A coinciding dilemma of this phenomena is that it is in the TNC’s interests to keep the poor in a vicious cycle of poverty, as doing conversely may result in a shortage of labor which is a clear threat to their competitiveness.

A Vietnamese sweatshop for Nike brand trainers, located in Ho Chi Minh city, photographed in 1997.
Image Source: Sydney Morning Herald: ‘I worked in a sweatshop and know how those $59 jeans are made’ (2016-9-6)

2. Taxation and Transfer Pricing

Almost every emerging political economy urges for FDI inflow, bringing with it employment generation, an acceleration of economic activity, an inflow of sophisticated knowledge, technology, international best practices, etc., and therefore attract TNCs to include them (nation-states) in their (TNC) global operations. In this effort, the governments usually fall into a bargaining trap with the TNCs, granting them special tax rates and other concessions in their regulatory system. Such tax discounts further increase the already huge competitive gap between the TNCs and their local competitors. Therefore, it inflicts an irrecoverable wound to the local industry. The TNCs also take advantage of the special transfer pricing rates between the home and host countries. This strategic step helps the TNCs become more competitive in the host market, as well as reaping the benefits of accumulating larger earnings through market sales in the wealthier home country.

3. Corruption

TNCs are highly resourceful and strictly adhere to their goals. The TNCs goals may or may not be acceptable to the host nor even to the home country in some cases. When TNCs do not find their purposes being fulfilled in a simple and straightforward manner, they attempt to find another way around the hurdle, often by brutally deploying the weapon of corruption to eliminate any obstacles that are preventing them from reaching their goals.

Normally, TNCs involve the top level bureaucrats by offering them direct and indirect undue personal benefits in return for their commitment to guard the TNC’s interests through the regimentation of law or through the manipulation of regulatory procedures. This weapon of corruption is usually deployed through licensing, taxation, accounting procedures, financial reporting, information disclosure, concealing the norms of corporate conduct, violating the prevailing labor laws so as to operate in a racist or authoritarian manner, and engaging in brinkmanship in conflicting areas until the opposing party concedes to their demands, etc.

4. Environmental Damage

The literature and current affairs reflect that environmental awareness has been increasing rapidly during the last few decades, especially in the first world countries, giving rise to an intense public concern over environmental issues.  New groups, forums, and classes of ecofriendly consumers have emerged in the global market, especially in North America and the member countries of the European Union. This awareness has forced governments to pass laws prohibiting practices damaging the environment and to adopt all kinds of environmentally friendly practices in business affairs. These measures invariably prove to be costly to TNCs and therefore detrimental to their goal of maintaining a competitive market position.

This situation has instigated the TNC decision makers to take solid steps to remove the unethical and environmentally damaging practices from their corporate firms located in first world countries – the majority of which are the home countries of those TNCs. Instead, they shift these practices to the appropriate production facilities in emerging political economies eager to host TNC factories. The TNCs, already being more sophisticated in technology and quality management than these third world countries, give an excellent presentation before the regulatory bodies of the host country and cleverly conceal the negative environmental effects of their operations in the host country. In some cases, the host countries are aware of the risks and accept them anyway in exchange for monetary gain.  In case their real face is exposed, the weapon of corruption is there to solve the problem.

TNCs do not hesitate to damage the air, water, and soil for the sake of exploiting resources, or dumping hazardous wastes. The author of this study, during his past, has closely observed a European pesticide giant who had incorporated a dummy business in Pakistan with an objective to import and dump pesticides approaching their expiry date – pesticides which were not allowed to be dumped in the air, land, or water throughout Europe.

Megaprojects: After Bhopal: Cleaning up the World’s Worst-Ever Industrial Disaster (2020-9-14)

5. Threats of Sacking the Contracts

Trans-National Corporations usually are in a stronger position than nation states when it comes to bargaining over contracts. In almost all cases, their entry in the host country is a pleasant event, but their departure may carry devastating effects. When TNCs enter an economy, all the stakeholders in the home and host countries express positive feelings. The hosting stakeholders welcome the TNCs, as their arrival means a bulk of FDI inflow and increased economic activities in the country, which implies employment generation, more tax revenue at the corporate and individual level, a new range of products in the local market, etc. Whereas, the investing stakeholders feel safe to open a new market, which in the long run, shifts its wealth to their economic system.

TNCs, being huge, establish an eco-system comprised of key individuals and business networks around them as part of their backward, forward, horizontal, and vertical value chain linkages which ultimately rely on their (TNC) activities. This symbiotic condition alleviates their already strong position before the national governments and sometimes even before the global polity institutes. In such conditions, keeping this ecosystem intact itself becomes a tough challenge for the host government, as little disturbances may result in a backward drift of several decades to the national economy. In case of any conflict between government and TNCs, sacking the contract would become the worst nightmare for the host economy. However, in cases where the TNCs wind up business on their own will, they develop and implement an exit strategy which reduces the incurred losses to the hosts.

In Pakistan, the sports goods giant Nike sacked its production contract in 2006 on six months’ notice. This incident, although reportedly due to some conflict between the brand and the vendor (Saga Sports), resulted in the unemployment of 7,000 soccer ball stitchers. The repercussions from this breach of contract further affected 60,000 dependents directly or indirectly, and later become the prime reason for the distorted image of the host country around the globe. The rehabilitation of jobless soccer ball stitchers and their families become a serious challenge for the government, which was later solved after a series of dialogues with its final round between Sialkot Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Prime Minister of Pakistan, and the executives of Nike in Bangkok. Although Nike eventually came back to the host country with many strict terms, a revised code of conduct, and a new monitoring policy, Pakistan lost its reputation as the leading soccer ball producer and the goodwill of soccer fans around the globe. The damage was irrecoverable – the country which was once the producer of 80% of world’s soccer balls is now struggling hard to sustain a 20% share in the global market.

Image Source: OP India: Pakistan: Ten cricket players test positive for coronavirus ahead of England tour, PCB says no change in schedule (2020-6-24)

6. Promotion of Consumerism

TNCs have ample resources in terms of technology, knowledge, innovation, and finance, and they operate on large scales to remain competitive. Such large scale production requires acquisition, distribution, purchasing, consumption, and waste disposal at an equal pace, and therefore entails advertisement, sales strategies, shipments, and aggressive marketing campaigns to localize products alien to the host culture.  As a result, consumerism spreads throughout the host economy. A few authors have even blamed TNCs for promoting the materialistic American dream of living a lavish and luxurious life which produces high levels of stress among individuals.

In fact, TNCs have well developed strategies to reap the full benefits of the increased economic activity in the system in which they operate. Promoting consumerism, in garb, is an intelligent way of creating and expanding a market in which consumer goods are exchanged for an individual’s savings; therefore, providing an effective way of siphoning out wealth from the host country and accumulating wealth in the TNC’s home country. This phenomenon also produces a deceleration in the process of national wealth creation.

7. Bullying through ‘Ethics’ and Licensing

The inherent characteristics of TNCs, such as its large size, resources, manpower, knowledge, technology, political position, bargaining power, etc. are the essential ingredients used when formulating any strategy. TNCs display their power in both the home or host country through the promotion of ‘ethics’. Their aggressive strategies not only ensure the fulfillment of their objectives, but also to snub or even crush any of competitors. They wisely use their export policies, franchising, licensing, intellectual property rights, brand protection management, etc. for this purpose. If the imposition of ‘ethics’ fails, they do not hesitate to silently cross the ethical boundaries at certain times in order to take lead over their competitors.

Body bags containing the remains of victims of a fire that gutted a footwear factory are lined up next to coffins at a makeshift morgue in Valenzuela City, suburban Manila, on May 14, 2015.
Image Source: Yahoo! News: Philippine fire death trap highlights sweatshop abuses (2015-5-15)

8. The Sovereignty of the Host Nation-State is at Stake

Trans-National corporations are not bound to any country or nation-state; instead they are bound to their own incorporation having the objectives of attaining a market position and profiteering. If the environment in any host and/or home country becomes unfavorable to them, nothing can stop them from relocating their enterprises to another place of their choice, such to obtain a more favorable environment. Secondly, they acquire such a strong bargaining position that they can take smaller governments hostage to fulfill their agenda. In such conditions, they brutally use their powers to bring their selected agents into positions of authority, which is a severe damage to the democratic process.

No nation-state is safe. Even the flagship democratic countries are held hostage to TNCs. This phenomenon has brought the worst historic example on record when a cartel of oil companies intervened in the U.S. political system to ensure the election of President George W. Bush, twice; a President who later fulfilled his commitments by invading Iraq and giving them access to her rich reserves of oil and gas. All these proceedings and happenings were portrayed in the colors of political, social, and ethical theories by the international media, who itself is the prime partner in creating this criminal ethos with the power to create a hyper-reality in the media. Meanwhile, innocent humanitarian citizens, having grave trust in the government and media, still consider it as a ‘war for peace’ and a ‘war on terror’ between a ‘good’ and a ‘bad’ nation-state; whereas the TNCs have silently reaped all the benefits.

According to Vernon [2], it is crucial to note that many TNC-state conflicts have always been fueled by the duality of foreign subsidiaries and the use of extraterritorial actions.  According to him, Multi-National Corporations serve as vehicles facilitating the extraterritorial reach of one state into the domain of another. TNCs are also used as a passive intermediary for channeling the home country’s influence into the host country.  This phenomenon of TNCs being used as the primary vehicle of imperialism can be found throughout history.

The First Anglo-Chinese War (1839-42), popularly known as the First Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing Dynasty of China, with the aim of securing economic benefits from trade in (and forcing opium on) China. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking – the first of what the Chinese called the unequal treaties – granted an indemnity to Britain, the opening of five treaty ports, and the cession of Hong Kong Island, in return for ending the British monopoly of trading in the Canton System. The war marked the end of China’s isolation and the beginning of modern Chinese history.

9. Selling Back Local Resources at a Premium

Transnational corporations select their host countries on the basis of their location and resources (raw material, man-power, etc.). TNCs, particularly those engaged in the trade of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), use ‘local people’ to process ‘local material’ to produce the ‘foreign product.’  This ‘foreign product’ is then advertised as ‘export quality’ or ‘a symbol of having an up-graded lifestyle’; and therefore, is sold back to the ‘locals’ at high premiums. This type of strategy can be described as ‘moving back to go forward’ on the part of TNCs. Another example of this phenomenon is how TNCs engage in the trade of bottled drinking water, fruit juices, etc. TNCs add nothing to these products except the packaging and foreign brand identity, for which the ‘locals’ must pay a premium price.  This transfer of wealth to TNCs thereby fulfills their agenda of wealth accumulation.

10. Hyper-Growth Strategies

Trans-National Corporations are very aggressive when it comes to their growth. They use their powers of capital and knowledge to win at the warfront of their own choice. TNCs use the tools and techniques of mergers, acquisitions, joint-ventures, and alliances in both positive and negative ways to ensure their hyper-growth. The objective behind this hyper-growth is not to become an effective ‘market player’, but rather to become the ‘market leader,’ more accurately phrased as the ‘market controller’ with their monopolistic bent of mind.

[End Excerpt.]

Sources and References

  1. Asghar, Ali. “Power Play of Transnational Organizations in Emerging Political Economies.” SSRN Electronic Journal (2014) 1349-1353.  doi:10.2139/SSRN.2432811.
  2. Peebles, D.M., Ryans, J.K., Vernon, I.R. and Willis, J.R., “International Advertising Strategy”, European Journal of Marketing, 11:8 (1977) 564-576.  https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000005034

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About Jack

Jack is a world traveling artist, skilled in trading ideas and information, none of which are considered too holy, too nerdy, nor too profane to hijack and twist into useful fashion. Sigma Frame Mindsets and methods for building and maintaining a masculine Frame
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24 Responses to 10 Dark Aspects of Trans-National Corporations

  1. anonymous_ng says:

    There are structural reasons behind offshoring as well. For example, the more the welfare state and the bureaucratic state try and leech off of the productive class, the more those who produce are going to try and find ways to shelter their gains.

    A while back, I did some research on the inflation-adjusted, per-capita spending by the US federal government over time, and it had risen from something like $1000/person at the turn of the 20th century to something like $15K/person at the turn of the 21st century.

    Politicians buy votes with ever more generous benefits whether via safety net benefits, or corporate hand outs.

    No one wants to recognize friction, and inertia. Small changes in one thing are unlikely to generate large changes elsewhere. Liberals and conservatives alike delude themselves in this regard. Sin taxes are unlikely to change people’s behaviors, but legislators continue to believe despite evidence to the contrary that they will. Similarly, few people will change their lives because of small to moderate tax increases, but some will, and it’s usually those with the most money who have the highest ability to change things.

    One businessman spoke about entrepreneurs going offshore. He pointed out there are many issues with going offshore, but moving from California to Texas can save a lot of money on state income tax without leaving the US.

    So long as corporate taxes are high, they will be motivated to find ways to lower those taxes. If Alphabet has to only pay 12% in Ireland, but 23% in the US, they will be motivated. However, if Ireland is 12%, and the US is 15%, that 3% difference might not be worth the money spent on the reporting requirements etc.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. catacombresident says:

    This parallels my blog post today discussing Michael Hudson’s work in identifying the difference between industrial capitalism and finance capitalism. That latter produces the predatory practices you describe in this post, Jack.

    Like

  3. Joe2 says:

    Here are some statistics about direct foreign investment, as reported by the International Monetary Fund.

    The world’s top ten recipients of foreign direct investment by end-2020 were the United States, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, China, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Switzerland, Ireland, and Germany.

    The United States took the leadership position as the largest recipient of direct investment in 2019 and maintained that position in 2020, mainly driven by higher direct investments from Japan, Germany, and the Netherlands.

    It seems like the United States is a good place for business regardless of corporate taxes, but who knows maybe the direct foreign investment gets tax breaks or is able to shelter the investment from taxes.

    https://blogs.imf.org/2021/12/16/the-worlds-top-recipients-of-foreign-direct-investment/

    Like

    • Oscar says:

      It seems like the United States is a good place for business regardless of corporate taxes

      Better than most places, that’s for sure. Besides, taxes are for the little people.

      but who knows maybe the direct foreign investment gets tax breaks or is able to shelter the investment from taxes.

      Bingo! It’s hilarious how people fall for the “stick it to the man!” narrative. Amazon is not going to pay the corporate taxes that are supposed to “punish” them, because they have the resources to hire armies of lawyers, and accountants, and to rent politicians.

      Politicians can’t be bought, by the way. They can only be rented.

      Anyway, Amazon won’t pay those corporate taxes. Small businesses will.

      Every tax that’s supposed to “stick it to the rich” eventually ends up being imposed on the middle class.

      The top federal income tax rate was originally 7%, and only for income above $500k/year in 1913 (if I remember correctly). Today, I bet everyone here pays a lot more than 7% of their income in federal taxes.

      So it goes with every tax supposedly meant to “stick it to the rich”.

      Like

      • info says:

        Every time the “rich” must pay their fair share its the poors that pay.

        Liked by 1 person

      • Oscar says:

        More like the middle class. The poor get screwed too, but the middle class gets it worse, I think.

        Liked by 1 person

      • Red Pill Apostle says:

        “Anyway, Amazon won’t pay those corporate taxes. Small businesses will.”

        Actually, neither small business nor large businesses pay corporate taxes because taxes are merely an expense line on the income statement that has to be built into the pricing of goods and services. It’s always the end consumer who pays.

        Like

      • redpillboomer says:

        “Actually, neither small business nor large businesses pay corporate taxes because taxes are merely an expense line on the income statement that has to be built into the pricing of goods and services. It’s always the end consumer who pays.”

        Always! The so-called middle class foots the bill for everything. There may come a day when the middle class can no longer foot the bill.

        Like

  4. Oscar says:

    The author seems to think that the governments of “developing” countries are victims, when in fact, they’re accomplices.

    Or, maybe it’s more accurate to say that the politicians are accomplices.

    Liked by 1 person

    • redpillboomer says:

      “Or, maybe it’s more accurate to say that the politicians are accomplices.”

      Correct. There are no more statesman anymore, they’re all politicians now; and they all can be “bought” for a price, for “hire” so to speak. Long gone are the days of men (and a few select women) who are in it for some higher good, i.e. patriotism, national interest, etc. They’re all bought for a price by someone or some entity somewhere. We’ve got two Senators in my state, supposedly who represent Georgia, and they have little if anything to do with the state of Georgia.

      Like

    • Jack says:

      Right. I’m certain that there are some local politicians, businessmen, and entrepreneurs who are raking in the $$$.

      Liked by 1 person

  5. info says:

    I honestly think that corporate personhood should be stripped from certain companies for committing crimes.

    Open up the executives to unlimited liability.

    Liked by 2 people

    • Oscar says:

      Or, maybe the opposite. If they’re going to claim the privileges of personhood, then they should also have the responsibilities of personhood.

      Commit a crime? Go to “jail”. No doing business for x number of years.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Bardelys the Magnificent says:

        The avoidance of direct responsibility is the entire point of corporate personhood. It will never be withdrawn without a fight.

        Liked by 1 person

  6. Bardelys the Magnificent says:

    We studied this extensively in B-school. When the question of the ethics and downsides to the host countries came up (example: IMF intentionally giving loans to countries who cannot pay them), the consensus was a shrugging of shoulders. I knew then I wasn’t going to make a good corporate exec.

    Liked by 1 person

  7. MLT says:

    If these TNCs were countries in themselves, they would have budgets rivaling a good number of our nation-states. They would have raised their own private armed forces to defend their own business interests. Reading this article about TNCs, especially this one reminds me of Smedley Butler the USMC General who got the Congressional Medal of Honor twice and then wrote the famous booklet “War is a Racket”. What should the takeaway of this article tell Americans concerning who to elect as President? Be careful to elect people, especially businessmen and also showmen in the example of Donald Trump. I am sure that Trump left a real bad taste in the mouths of many Americans. At the time of the 2016 election, many Americans did not want another Clinton or another Bush. We got Trump instead and he, in the process as President, may have damaged our country’s prestige and respect that may take generations to repair.

    The reason I think Americans need to be careful electing businessmen is that the true constituency of businessmen is the shareholders, both institutional and personal. I believe that if an oil cartel can get Bush and Cheney elected so as to further the said cartel’s business aims then it may stand to reason the allegiance of Bush and Cheney may be suspect. If so, that may prove right General Butler. The President of the United States of America should serve “We the People” and not “We the Corporations”. Are nation-states to direct businesses for the betterment of the people of these nation-states or will nation-states become mere parts of these businesses to be disposed of if these same nation-states become inimical to these businesses’ bottom lines? That may be something to think about. Thank you.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Joe2 says:

      “We got Trump instead and he, in the process as President, may have damaged our country’s prestige and respect that may take generations to repair.”

      No doubt you suffer from Trump Derangement Syndrome (TDS). You can’t distinguish fantasy from reality. Like a good Democrat, just blame Trump, it’s all Trump’s fault. You are delusional MLT — and that may be something for you to think about. Thank you.

      Liked by 2 people

    • elspeth says:

      “We got Trump instead and he, in the process as President, may have damaged our country’s prestige and respect that may take generations to repair.”

      After two years of Biden’s slapstick retarded variety show, complete with this as the cherry on top so far this year:

      I marvel that anyone can say with straight face that Trump damaged our country’s prestige. Are you kidding me? ROFL!

      Liked by 1 person

  8. locustsplease says:

    All you need to make a group of people your slaves is manipulate the numbers by 0.5% per year. After enough time they won’t know it. We see it all around us.

    Like

  9. MLT says:

    Please let me say that yes, I lean Democrat on some issues and lean Republican on others. Is that wrong to you, Joe2? I ask, how then are a number of Republicans such as Cheney and Kinzinger and even Maryland Gov. Hogan finding out that Trump may have damaged the country’s prestige and respect? Even though I do not live in Kinzinger’s district, I like what he had to say about Trump’s actions a little bit before, during, and after 1/6/2021.
    Let me say that there are non-Trumpist Republicans and it may be safe to say that right now the three Republicans I mentioned can be considered non-Trumpist Republicans.

    Even now, a number of Republicans have found Trump unfit for office. I doubt that Trump can win the 2024 election because he may or may not be declared unfit to run. That is based on how the 1/6 Commission presents its evidence, federal and state investigations on Trump’s conduct during the 2020 election, Trump’s own health, be it physical or mental, and whatever else. Let me say that please, yes, I support a strong defense for this country and not being used like a security force to do the bidding of shadowy corporate bigwigs.

    So, whether I may have TDS or not, criticism of Trump’s actions is as American as criticism of Obama’s or Biden’s actions. Is it not American to show concern for America regardless of what political party you may support? Has not God direct Christians to pray for our leaders whether we agree with said leaders’ policies? Thank you.

    Like

  10. Pingback: The Power Play Tactics of Trans-National Corporations | Σ Frame

  11. Oscar says:

    Hey MLT, are you down with this degenerate freak show?

    https://thenationalpulse.com/2022/07/05/biden-doe-official-defended-underage-sex-site/

    In an article published on September 15th on the pro-LGBT+ website Advocate, Biden’s latest top nuclear hire dives into a defense of the “Rentboy.com” website, which shuttered following an August 2015 illegal prostitution raid.
    ……
    The U.S. District Court of the Eastern District of New York’s indictment also revealed the site’s negligence regarding underage sex work, particularly across Asia.

    It detailed how Rentboy employees described the age verification process as a “gray area,” as they “did not always remove advertisements when the advertisers failed to provide identification.”

    Like

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